Protocols

Protocols

Aug 11, 2022 General by jimmy

Certainly the ARPAnet is the best-known TCP/IP network. However as of June, 87, at least 130 different vendors had products that support TCP/IP, and thousands of networks of all kinds use it. The internet is a global network of computers that use protocols and data packets to exchange information.

  • The description above indicated that the IP implementation is responsible for getting datagrams to the destination indicated by the destination address, but little was said about how this would be done.
  • Ethernet is a family of related protocols which deal with how data is sent along ethernet cables – it isn’t a single protocol.
  • For example, static routing is limited to small networks and does not scale well.
  • Both TCP and UDP control how packets are prepared for sending across the internet and what happens to them when they are received on the other side.
  • There are four different layers within the TCP/IP model and each layer is responsible for different parts of the communication process.

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IP Routing

When a user attempts to make a connection to another system, he will generally specify the system by name, rather than Internet address. His system has to translate that name to an address before it can do anything. Generally, only a few systems have the database used to translate names to addresses. So the user’s system will want to send a query to one of the systems that has the database. Of course TCP does more than just break things up into datagrams.

TCP is a connection-based protocol, offering error correction and guaranteed delivery of data via what is known as flow control. Flow control determines when the flow of a data stream needs to be stopped, and previously sent data packets should to be re-sent due to problems such as collisions, crossgrid.org for example, thus ensuring complete and accurate delivery of the data. TCP is typically used in the exchange of important information such as database transactions. TCP/IP is the driving force of the Internet, and thus it is the most popular set of network protocols on Earth.

Comprehensive survey of network security and network management covers the requirements and design issues involved in managing and safe guarding distributed systems. Reporting on next-generation Internet protocols explains RSVP, MPLS, SIP and RTP and how they fit together. Password protected instructor resources can be accessed here by clicking on the Resources Tab to view downloadable files. Protocols establish how two computers send and receive a message. Once the handshaking process is complete, the data transfer can begin.

Another alternative protocol is ICMP (“Internet control message protocol”). ICMP is used for error messages, and other messages intended for the TCP/IP software itself, rather than any particular user program. For example, if you attempt to connect to a host, your system may get back an ICMP message saying “host unreachable”. ICMP can also be used to find out some information about the network.

10 TCP

Your TCP has to know the port number used by the other end as well. (It finds out when the connection starts, as we will explain below.) It puts this in the “destination” port field. Of course if the other end sends a datagram back to you, the source and destination port numbers will be reversed, since then it will be the source and you will be the destination. This is used so that the other end can make sure that it gets the datagrams in the right order, and that it hasn’t missed any.

LAN & Internet Protocols

In many cases, the Gateway Address will be that of a router on the same network, which will in turn pass traffic on to other networks or hosts, such as Internet hosts. The value of the Gateway Address setting must be correct, or your system will not be able to reach any hosts beyond those on the same network. These configuration values must be set correctly in order to facilitate the proper network operation of your Ubuntu system. This is an interaction between the computer and the user.